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腾讯主要创始人、武汉学院创办人陈一丹:面向教育未来

作者: 责任编辑:洪斐 来源:本站提供 时间:2018-03-26 15:01 浏览:3306次

3月25日至27日,2018国际文凭全球大会在新加坡召开,一千八百多位来自全球教育界的专家、学者、教师等齐聚峰会,围绕“教育塑造未来”这一主题深入探讨。

此次大会还特别邀请腾讯主要创始人、一丹奖创办人陈一丹先生出席并发表开场演讲—《面向教育未来》。谈及人工智能、个性化学习、教育技术变革与互联网模式创新在全球教育发展过程中所面临的变化,以及对教育未来的思考。

国际文凭组织(International Baccalaureate Organization)是一个非营利性质的国际教育基金会,成立于1968年,总部设在瑞士的日内瓦,面向全世界的儿童和青少年提供国际文凭教育项目。

面向教育与未来——关于教育的未来的三点思考

Siva Kumaribo博士、IB董事会各成员、各位参会嘉宾,大家早上好!

感谢大会邀请,在这里跟大家分享我对教育的一些经验和思考。

1. 与教育结缘

我跟教育结缘,是在2007年前后。2004年腾讯上市后发展很快,我们也觉得办好企业之外,要更多承担社会责任,于是成立了腾讯公益慈善基金会。也是从那时开始,通过参与基金会的公益活动,与教育结缘。

中国的教育体系以公立学校为骨干,民办力量在教育方面取得突破是比较困难的。但我们还是做了一些实体办学的尝试,也取得一些进展。

我分享的第一个探索,是腾讯基金会与福田区教育局一起成立深圳明德实验学校。这个实验性项目在突破以往公立方式办义务教育,是公立非公办的性质。具体讲,学校保持公立的性质和身份,但和传统公办方式不同,学校把举办权委托给了由合办双方联合组成的教育慈善基金会,由基金会成为学校的管理主体。基金会建立机制设立校董会,校长向校董会负责;教师采用聘任制,而非公立学校的任命制、终身制。体制改变一小步、教学前进一大步,老师和学生的活力和创造性都被激发出来,明德学校在短短几年已经成长为当地最好的学校之一。

义务教育之外,我也探索了民办高等教育,这个实验田是武汉学院。武汉学院是华中首家非营利性民办大学。非营利的性质让武汉学院获得了政府和公众的信任,民办的身份让武汉学院在管理方式和教学方式的灵活度、学科建设和市场的贴合度等方面有自己的优势。

对教育工作参与的越多、与教育界的接触的越多,越感到需要对教育规律的理解和推动。2016年发起的“一丹奖”,用来支持和奖励对教育规律进行开创性探索的思考者和实践者,向他们学习、致敬和推广,也想借助这个平台吸引全球的聪明大脑一起来研究教育、践行教育。第一届“一丹教育研究奖”颁给了美国斯坦福大学心理学教授Carol S.Dweck。她提出“成长型心态”对评估和发展受教育者的潜能影响深远。“一丹教育发展奖”颁给哥伦比亚新学校基金会的Vicky Colbert。她主持的教育项目以学生为中心融合课程、教师培训、社群参与和校园管理,为乡村地区提供优质教育,已经在许多国家落地,成效显著。

2. 教育的问题

2007年到现在,已经过去十年。回顾这十年我和教育的缘分,义务教育阶段的公立非公办学校、高等教育阶段的公益性民办高校、国际学校的校董等等,每一个学校都在教育层面有自己的探索、自己的贡献,我对教育行业的每一个参与者都心存敬佩。我也更加认识到教育在整个社会体系当中的特殊性和关键作用,更坚信教育是解决人类社会深层次挑战的钥匙。当然,我也看到无论体制是私立还是公立、无论环境是发展中国家还是发达国家,教育体系都存在一些类似的问题。

问题之一,是传统的授课模式与学生的预期有落差。在互联网无处不在、信息大爆炸的时代,传统的老师讲、学生听的授课模式正在瓦解。

老师不再是课堂上的唯一权威信息来源,学生们可以从各种渠道获取大量信息。老师甚至要向年轻的互联网原住民请教如何使用一些新奇技术。

从这个意义上说,我们正在走入人类学家Margaret Mead口中的“前喻文化”时代,需要从原来的老师教学生的知识单向流动,双向甚至多向交流。教师的职责不再是教授知识,更需要创造学习的氛围,引导学生自主学习。

问题之二,是目前考核的单一标准,跟人才培养所需的多元化和多样性是不符合的。理想中的学校教育是要充分关注到学生之间的差异,因材施教,鼓励学生试错、培养想象力和创造力,而不是以考试为中心的学术知识灌输。

但现实是,依然很多学校是从上而下逐级管理,小学、中学、大学,低一层的学校以上一层学校的入学要求为教学目的,层层筛选。

在亚洲许多国家,大学统考是指挥一切的魔杖;在美国和欧洲一些国家,各类考试成绩也是评估学校教学质量的主要参考。十年前就有改革这样单一标准考核的呼声,但十年过去,收效离预期还是有距离。

问题之三,是教育体系与现实有落差,人才培养与社会需求脱节。每一次的重大科技进步都会影响到就业市场,间接给教育体系施加变革压力。

计算机科学家、Coursera的联合创始人吴恩达在回答“在什么样的场景下应该考虑使用人工智能?”这个问题时说道: “如果一个普通人能用不到1秒的时间思考解决,那可能很快就可以用人工智能实现自动化。

”翻译、图像识别、语音助手、自动驾驶、垃圾邮件过滤,这些机器做得很好的工作都属此类。不仅出租车司机在人工智能的射程内,翻译、编辑或程序员这样的白领工作也可能受到机器和算法的威胁。

腾讯的DreamWriter写作机器人,目前的发稿量是每天2500篇体育或财经新闻。这是就业市场的压力源,而应对之道应该从调整教育体系开始,比如学科建设、课程设置、学生培养方案等等,在这方面,我们做的远远不够。

3. 未来的教育-我的三点思考教育体系面临困难的解决之道,也是未来教育应该发展的方向。对于未来教育的发展,我的思考有如下三个点。

1首先,科技发展及在教育行业的应用,为未来教育的发展提供了破局的可能。科技扮演着压力源和赋能器的双重角色。一方面,科技是压力源,正如前面提到,科技进步是教育内容调整的风向标。另一方面,科技是赋能器,移动互联网、机器学习、虚拟现实-增强现实正在改变课堂的形态。

Coursera、Udacity、可汗学院等机构提供的MOOC让数以百万计的全球互联网用户以极低成本接触到优质教育内容。Coursera上最受欢迎的课程接收的学生人数接近120万,这是传统课堂无法达成的。IBM正在探索将机器学习用于提高课堂效率,虚拟现实和增强现实技术在医疗等技能培训领域的实验性应用,效果不错。

2其次,以学生为中心的教学实践,是培养可以应对未来挑战的全面人才的关键。一丹奖基金会委托EIU采访了包括耶鲁大学前校长Richard Levin、新西兰教育部长Nikki Kaye、新加坡NIE副院长David Hung在内的17位教育界的思想者,倾听他们对未来教育的理解。

在这些专家眼中,技能教育与通识教育不是此消彼长的零和游戏,而是互相促进的整体。本次报告总结出6个未来教育需要着重培养的学生特质,其中既有创造力、冒险精神,也包括数字技能和跨学科知识。具体分为六个方面,一是跨学科的能力,跨出目前的专业细分的条框,具备多领域综合技能;二是创新和分析能力,未来想象力比掌握具体知识更重要;三是企业家精神,培养勇于冒险、勇于承担责任的人格特质;四是掌握数字技术,让学生适应未来与机器协作的工作环境;五是领导力,团队合作、全局思考、使命感;六是全球视野和包容的人文精神,让学生具备更宽广的发展潜力。达成这样的教育目标,必须兼顾技能和通识教育。教育的形式不重要,重要的是内容和质量。

3最后,推动教育体系向前发展的关键,不同教育主体关键在于学校的管理领导者,不同国家和地区关键在于国家教育政策的制定者。

教育是一个复杂的体系,持份者众多,校园内的学生、老师、管理者、校园外的家长、企业、政府、公益组织,几乎社会中的每一份子都是教育体系的直接或间接的持份者。驱动这一庞大体系前进当然需要所有人共同努力,但在众多的教育主体——学校,核心的主要力量源泉是学校的领导者和管理者,对于私立学校来说是学校的校董会和校长管理,对于公立学校来说是主管的政府机构和校长管理。学校的管理者是校园良治的基石,是发展管理高质量教师队伍的前提,也是包括课程设置、教学互动等关键因素的守护者。

从我自己的实践来看,学校的领导者和管理者是打开教育体系革新的钥匙。而在一个国家或地区层面,依据不同学校主体的实践形成的群体效应,国家或地区教育政策的制定和调整,将深刻影响教育的环境和导向,成为教育推动的积极关键者。

我相信,未来,教育会循着科技的进步和社会形态的变化不断调整出最佳的状态,我们对教育的理解会越来越深刻。毕竟,教育本身不是一切努力的目的,是我们追求社会的长久发展、回归人本身的幸福所必须的过程和手段。

谢谢大家!


The Future of Education2018-03-26 一丹奖Dr. Charles Chen Yidan’s Opening Speech as Guest Speakerat the IB Global Conference (25 March, 2018)

Dr Siva Kumari, IB Board members, distinguished guests, ladies and gentlemen,

Let me begin by thanking the organizers of IB Global Conference for inviting me to be this year's guest speaker. ?I would like to share my personal journey and reflections on education. Why Education PhilanthropyAfter Tencent went IPO in 2004, my co-founders and I felt that we needed to shoulder more corporate social responsibility, so we established the Tencent Foundation. ?In 2007, I started getting involved in education philanthropy by leading our Foundation's public welfare activities.

In China, public schools are the backbone of our education system. ?So when a private school pushes for progress, it is not easy. ?Nevertheless, our innovative models demonstrated some breakthroughs in the way education is delivered in China.

The first project I like to share about was a collaboration with the Education Bureau in Shenzhen's Futian District. ?Together with Tencent Foundation, Shenzhen Mingde Experimental School was established. ?This experimental project was ground-breaking because it is the first public entrusted school - meaning that it receives public school status and benefits, yet is managed by an entrusted education philanthropy foundation——Mingde Foundation.

From my experience with Mingde school, I realize that a small institutional change can make a big difference. In this example, the most authoritative body is not the government, it is the school board, and the board is responsible for making decision and running school operations. Reported to the governing board, the Principal is appointed through global recruitment. Meanwhile, teachers at Mindge School are selected based on merit and they are not guaranteed with lifelong employment, which appears common in public schools. ?

To date, Mingde School is recognized as an experimental school with an innovative model. It has become one of the best local schools in a few years.

The second project I like to share about was running a private university: Wuhan College, the first non-profit, private university in Central China. Given its private nature, Wuhan College has more flexibility – from management to teaching and curriculum development – in order to provide education that is relevant to market needs.?

Now, Wuhan College has earned the trust from both the government and the general public.

More I get involved in education philanthropy, stronger I feel the need to take education to the next level. That leads me to my recent attempt: the Yidan Prize.

In 2016, I created the Yidan Prize to recognize sustainable and innovative ideas that tackle pressing challenges in the field of education.

The two inaugural laureates of the Prize are prime examples.

Professor Carol S. Dweck, Professor of Psychology at Stanford University is awarded with the Yidan Prize for Education Research. Her decades-long research on ‘growth mindset’ demonstrates how a focus on process rather than outcome can have a tremendous impact on students’ prospects of achieving their full potential.?

Ms Vicky Colbert, founder and director of Fundación Escuela Nueva in Colombia is awarded with the Yidan Prize for Education Development. Her ‘Escuela Nueva’ (new school) model moves away from conventional approach to a new student-centred model. By mixing students of different ages, combining curriculum, teacher training and community involvement, this model has been improving the quality of rural education in the developing world with significant results.

But the Yidan Prize is more than just an award. It is about creating a platform for putting a spotlight on the best and brightest the world has to offer, convinced that the ground-breaking work being done by the few will become the resource of the many.

Challenges in EducationLooking back on my ten-year journey in education philanthropy – from creating a public school entrusted to a foundation to running a non-profit, private university and being a Board of Director at an international school – I have learnt that each education institution has its own journey to explore the best way for them to benefit the education sector.

With my great respect to education practitioners like yourself, I recognize the critical role of education in driving social progress. I firmly believe that education is a key to tackling deep-rooted challenges.

All I can say is that, the issues and challenges that global education is facing – no matter in developed or developing country and no matter in ?private or public sector – are more or less similar.

Here are some of my observations.

First, the traditional teaching method does not fulfil student expectations. Driven by the rapid development of Internet, teachers are no longer the only authoritative source of information. Now, students have easy access to massive information and even teachers sometimes need to learn the way young people leverage information technology. The one-way traditional approach to teaching is being questioned. ?

Anthropologist Margaret Mead once proposed a concept of ‘prefigurative culture’, which highlights the need to transform the traditional one-way knowledge transfer into a two-way or even a multiple- dimensional exchange between teachers and students. In the era of ‘prefigurative culture’, the role of teacher is no longer about knowledge transfer but creating a student-centred learning environment.

Second, standardized assessment under-delivers on the promise of all-round and diversified talent development. Instead of heavily focusing on examination, an ideal education should be able to accommodate individual differences, to allow personalized learning and to encourage students to learn through trial and error and to cultivate the spirit of creativity.

It is easier said than done. In reality, many schools are still managed in a top-down approach. And the focus of teaching has sometimes misplaced on pushing students to climb the education ladder from primary to secondary and tertiary education. One may say that examination first remains popular in East Asian countries. Yet in the United States, and many European Countries, test scores are also widely seen as a major source of reference in school assessment.

Ten years have gone by. Even though there was a call for reforming standardized assessment a decade ago, the discrepancy between ideal and reality remains today.

Last but not least, education system do not prepare the young generation with the skillset required for the future. If we look at human history, every technological breakthrough has an impact on the labour market and the education system is under pressure to reform.

In these days, we ask questions such as “in what circumstances should we consider using artificial intelligence” amidst the rise of robots and automation. To answer that question, Andrew Yan-Tak Ng, a computer scientist and the co-founder of online platform Coursera said: “Anything typical human can do with less than 1 second of thought, we can probably now or sooner automate with AI”.

In the modern context, tasks such as translations image recognition, voice assistance, automatic driving, spam filtering indeed could be easily done by machines. Even some professions such as driver, translator, editor, or programmer are also at the risk of being replaced by robots. Even in Tencent, we have developed Dreamwriter – a robotic reporter – which has been producing 2,500 pieces of news daily.

All these examples suggest that technology is putting pressure on the job market. To tackle the challenge of automation, we should start with education reform – from redesigning academic discipline, to curriculum development and student development methods – and we still have a lot of work to do.

Educating for the FutureTo educate our next generation for the future, education should offer a solution to tackle the tremendous challenges of the current system. Here are my three takes:

First, technology unlocks many possibilities. In the context of education, technology has a dual role: as a source of pressure and as an enabler. For example, technology such as mobile Internet, machine learning and augmented reality have been changing classroom setting in ways previously thought impossible.

The Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) provided by platforms such as Coursera, Udacity, Khan Academy – just to name a few – enables hundreds and millions Internet users to access affordable quality online learning. The most well-received course offered by Coursera has attracted nearly 1.2 million online students on its own.

Technology firms such as IBM is now exploring the use of machine learning to improve classroom efficiency and to leverage augmented reality to advance job skills training. Such experiment has seen positive results.

All these examples showcase the positive impact of technology in education and that offers a good reason for us to stay optimistic.

Secondly, student-centred teaching method is a key. The Yidan Prize Foundation has commissioned the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) to interview 17 thought leaders in education such as former President of Yale University Richard Levin, New Zealand Minister of Education Nikki Kaye, Associate dean of National Institute of Education Singapore David Hung, about their take on the future of education.

According to these experts, skills education and general education are not mutually exclusive. Instead, they complement each other. Based on the above literature review, 6 types of future skills have been identified.

They are:

· ? ? ?Interdisciplinary skills: the ability to think outside the box of professional specialization and to possess integrated skills; ?

· ? ? ?Creative and analytical skills: the importance of being imaginative has already outpaced conventional approach to knowledge and skills acquisition;

· ? ? ?Entrepreneurial skills: the ability to take risk and responsibility;

· ? ? ?Digital and technical skills: digital literacy allows students to adapt to the future workplace that requires them to collaborate with machines;

· ? ? ?Leadership skills: team work, all-round thinking and a sense of mission;

· ? ? ?Global awareness and civic education: allowing students to fully realize their potentials

The rise of future skills reminds us of one thing: education is not only about the format, but also the content and the quality.

Finally, leadership matters. Education is a complex system, involving many stakeholders including students, teachers, administrators, parents, corporations, governments, and public organizations. Almost every member in the society somehow has a role in education system. Undoubtedly, we need multi-stakeholders collaboration to move education forward but leadership is the key to education reform.

In private school, leadership refers to board of directors and school principal. In public school, it refers to public administration and school management. In my opinion, school administration with good governance is the foundation of high-quality teaching that covers curriculum setting, teaching and pedagogy.

At a national or regional level, policy-makers also play a really important role. After all, public policy has a profound impact on education environment and that remains critical to education advancement.

In the future, education will continue to evolve – alongside with technological breakthrough and social change – and we will have deeper understanding on education. To me, education itself is not an end goal; it is an ongoing process to help mankind pursue (long-term) individual well-being and sustainable social development.

Thank you.